Desmond Molloy raises a relevant, if not essential point regarding DDR, former fighter reintegration and CVE. Historically concerned with national security outcomes, DDR can no longer make claim to affecting such settings in the clear absence of ‘preconditions’ which were the domain of DDR since 1989. These include an agreed peace agreement, legal framework and minimum security guarantee. Lacking all 3 pillars in most cases, the international community must ask itself under what conditions, and to what affect can former fighters be credibly marshaled through a DDR experience. Answers can be found in preventative strategies, enhancing community resilience and re-calibrating efforts towards human security agendas while conflict may be underway in CVE settings.